Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antimalarials/amino quinolines,
ATC code: P01BA02
Mechanism of action:
Hydroxychloroquine belongs to the group of 4-aminoquinolines, which are suitable for malaria prophylaxis and malaria treatment.
The antimalarial effect of hydroxychloroquine is explained inter alia with the binding of 4-aminoquinolines to porphyrin, which leads to the destruction or inhibition of asexual forms (schizonts) of non-resistant plasmodia in the erythrocytes, and bothers the development of sex forms (gametocytes) in Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and immature forms of Plasmodium falciparum.
With long-term treatment, hydroxychloroquine can modify the course of rheumatoid arthritis up to remission. In most animal models of inflammation, hydroxychloroquine has no effect.
The anti-rheumatic effect could result because of an immunosuppressive effect, e.g. by inhibition of the complement response and antigen-antibody reaction.
The effect on systemic lupus erythematosus has also been proven.
- Rheumatoid arthritis,
- Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (in combination with other therapies),
- Systemic lupus erythematosus,
- Malaria prophylaxis and therapy for all four human pathogens, except for chloroquine-resistant plasma strains
It should be noted that the frequency of resistance is geographically different.